The closing verses of the book of Revelation have been cited by some individuals and churches to maintain a claim that the Bible alone contains scripture. In their view, the revelation of God’s word ended with the canonization of the Bible and the inclusion of these verses at the end of the book of Revelation.
Revelation 22:18,19 KJV – For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
The purpose of this post is to warn against these views – that the Bible alone contains scripture and that the word of God ended with the canonization of the Bible. Assuming such a position involves wresting the scriptures (as opposed to obeying the manifest word of God). We know this to be true, in part, because these warnings clearly refer to the words of the prophecy of this book, not to the collection or library of books that were canonized in the Bible centuries after each document was written and first distributed.
As you read through this post, remember how it is written that the Lord set prophets in His church along with other ministers.
I Corinthians 12:27,28 KJV – Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular. And God hath set some in the church, first apostles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers, after that miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, diversities of tongues.
Ephesians 4:7-12 KJV – But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. (Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things.) And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:
Nowhere is it written in scripture that pastors and teachers would be the only ministerial offices that would be retained down to our day. With this in mind, remember also how it is written:
I Corinthians 12:3-11 KJV – Wherefore I give you to understand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of God calleth Jesus accursed: and that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are differences of administrations, but the same Lord. And there are diversities of operations, but it is the same God which worketh all in all. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal. For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit; To another the working of miracles; to another prophecy; to another discerning of spirits; to another divers kinds of tongues; to another the interpretation of tongues: But all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.
They Wrest the Scriptures unto Their Own Destruction
The assertion that the Bible alone contains scripture inspired by the Holy Ghost is, in fact, one of the main reasons for the warnings placed at the end of this particular book. As shown below, both adding to and taking away from God’s word is prohibited by God throughout the scriptures, not just in the book of Revelation. This includes ascribing things to scripture which are not expressly stated in scripture, such as stating that the Holy Ghost no longer moves upon prophets to speak and to write the word of the Lord after the Bible was canonized.
To illustrate this point, we need to understand the definition of the word wrest and how it relates to the current discussion. We will begin with the following quote from Peter.
II Peter 3:15,16 KJV – And account, even as our beloved brother Paul also, according to the wisdom given unto him, hath written unto you, the long-suffering and waiting of our Lord, for salvation. As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to be understood, which they who are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.
Note the consequence Peter lists for wresting scripture – one’s own destruction. We would be wise then to consider whether or not the specific warnings given in Revelation 22:18,19 are being represented appropriately or wrested when they are applied to more than the words of the prophecy of this book. That is, the question raised here is not about wresting the scriptures in general. Rather, it is about whether or not the words of the prophecy of this book refer to the book of Revelation or to the entire Bible as presently canonized.
The Greek word translated in II Peter 3:16 KJV as wrest is Strong’s # 4761, strebloó, which literally means to twist. The short definition given in Strong’s is: rack, pervert, and twist. Other definitions given include: torture or pervert language.
Now consider specifically the application of the warnings given in Revelation 22:18,19. First, can it be justly stated that because the Book of Revelation was placed at the end of the Bible by committee and that specific warnings were placed at the end of this prophecy, that this arrangement of the scriptures and warnings constitutes the conclusion of all revelation from God? To conclude this, one would have to show that the book of Revelation was placed at the close of the Bible by divine design and direction.
Concluding that revelation has stopped with the canonization of the writings contained in the Bible is a serious assertion. Many of the scriptures included in the Bible, especially those penned by the prophets and apostles, demonstrate clear divine direction. But where is the divine declaration that God would now remain silent in terms of uttering scripture to future generations through prophets the Lord has set in His church? It is simply missing. Instead, the Apostle Paul writes:
II Corinthians 14:29-33 – Let the prophets speak two or three, and let the other judge. If any thing be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace. For ye may all prophesy one by one, that all may learn, and all may be comforted. And the spirits of the prophets are subject to the prophets. For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints.
II Thessalonians 5:19-21 – Quench not the Spirit. Despise not prophesyings. Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.
As such, this assertion, that the book of Revelation concludes God’s revelation to mankind, is nothing less than a twisting and perverting of the text, and doing so thus invokes the stated consequences, that of one’s own destruction. Thus, anyone who adds to the words of the book of this prophecy, meaning the book of Revelation, will have the plagues added to them. Briefly concluded, we do not need to go any further into why the book of Revelation was placed at the end of the Bible to come to this realization. The words of Peter confirm this conclusion: those who wrest the scriptures do so unto their own destruction.
And if Any Man Shall Take Away
Notwithstanding the warnings to not add to the word of God, some people today willingly to maintain that they are just in applying Revelation 22:18 KJV to the whole Bible because they believe the Bible is the complete word of God. To follow their argument to a logical conclusion, they would not accept any changes, even by God. As a reality check on whether they are, in fact, just in doing so or not, consider what happens if the warning in the next verse is applied in like manner (i.e. if it is applied to the whole Bible).
In Revelation 22:19 KJV, we are warned that anyone who takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book. If we assume that this book is a reference to the whole canonized Bible, what are the implications of this assumption?
We will show in this section that there is more than sufficient evidence to show that certain scriptures have been taken away from God’s revealed word as it is found in the Bible. One way we will do this is to show that some documents been withheld from inclusion in the Bible and thus taken from it, either in part or as a whole. To lay some groundwork for supporting this objective, consider the following scriptures:
II Timothy 3:16 KJV – All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable [not mandatory; see John 5:39 with John 14:26] for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness.
II Peter 1:20,21 KJV – Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scriptures is given of any private will of man. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
Now consider how the Bible contains references to extra-Biblical scriptures. Here are links to a handful of examples, each from the New Testament:
Who is responsible for the exclusion of these inspired writings? Is the simple answer that they were not available at the time of canonization sufficient justification? Could it be rightly said that because they may or may not have been available at the time of canonization that it must have been God’s will that they should be left out? Or is someone or a group of individuals responsible for these references being left out of the Bible?
The warnings at the end of the book of Revelation in Revelation 22:18,19 clearly demonstrate that it would have been possible for someone to tamper with the revelations found in the book of Revelation. Else, why would the warnings have been given in the first place? And if someone could tamper with the book of Revelation, is it not possible for them to tamper with the whole Bible? However, this does not prove that the warnings of Revelation 22:18,19 were written to suggest that the Bible was now closed and that no more words of prophecy and instruction would be given by God after the canonization of the Bible.
Now back to the present argument. Please remember that we are considering here the application of Revelation 22:19 to the whole Bible, not just to the book of Revelation. Thus, if a person or group removed or left out inspired writings from the Bible, then their names would have been likewise removed from the book (tree) of life, etc., as stated in the warning.
Continuing on in this line of reasoning, one might ask: If the writings referenced in the list of scriptures cited above, or as cited elsewhere in the Bible become available now, would these writings be included in the Bible or not? Stated another way, would those who believe nothing can be added to the Bible now welcome the scriptures referenced by authors already with writings included in the Bible, e.g. Paul, James, Peter, John, etc.?
If the canon of scripture is considered by some to be closed, could even God open it? And if so, how would He do so? If not, where is it written that the Lord would not do so? Who else could decide if the canon could be opened to receive additional volumes? Where would the authority come from to make such a decision? Would those who hold to a closed canon of scripture allow God to have any say in this matter? Has God provided clear instructions for them to handle the matter by themselves?
To summarize, if the Bible is the sole repository of scripture, where in the Bible is such authority given to canonize some scriptures and not others? What are the criteria? Who established the criteria? Who was given or who assumed the right to finalize such a canonization so that no one else would ever be able to amend the canonization? Is scholarship the sole answer? How about archeological finds? When do recently discovered books warrant our study and consideration? Stated another way, if documents not now available were to appear in the future, who would have the right to say what may or may not be considered scripture? If a different version of an existing inclusion is found, how will it be handled and by whom? Who decides if something is to be considered inspired writings or not?
To be sure, God has not left such matters up to mankind. We are not our own saviors, for the way that seems right to us is certain death (Proverbs 16:25-33).
The Spirit of Truth will Teach and Guide You
I, for one, believe that Jesus Christ, as our Lord, has provided us the necessary and sufficient instruction on how to view and handle such matters through such passages of scripture as the following:
John 14:16-17,26 – If ye love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.
John 16:13-15 – Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth; for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak; and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me; for he shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father hath are mine; therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you.
Jesus clearly had a plan for building up and leading His church in the days which followed His death. In a word, He gave them the Holy Ghost to empower and guide them in their calling to be His body through whom He promised to minister to the world.
Acts 1:5 – For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost not many days hence.
Acts 2:4 – And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
Acts 2:38 – Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.
Acts 4:31 – And when they had prayed, the place was shaken where they were assembled together; and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and they spake the word of God with boldness.
Acts 8:15-17 – Who, when they were come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost: (For as yet he was fallen upon none of them: only they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.) Then laid they their hands on them, and they received the Holy Ghost.
Acts 9:31 – Then had the churches rest throughout all Judaea and Galilee and Samaria, and were edified; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied.
Acts 10:44 – While Peter yet spake these words, the Holy Ghost fell on all them which heard the word.
Acts 13:2,3 – As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid their hands on them, they sent them away.
Acts 15:28,29 – For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well.
Acts 20:28 – Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.
Knowing Therefore the Terror of the Lord, We Persuade Men
In addition to the references to missing documents listed above and elsewhere, in the Bible we find references to the book of life or the Lamb’s book, the scroll with seven seals, and the Book of Remembrance, etc. Each is only referenced in the Bible, not included in the scriptures like other books. Here are a handful of references:
Does this mean that such books should not be recognized as being authoritative or inspired by the Holy Ghost? These references are cited here to show that in certain cases, books have not been included in the Bible by design, but are nonetheless God’s books and they have a direct bearing on our lives, both now and in eternity.
Remember Revelation 22:19 KJV then and how those who take away from the words of the prophecy of this book will have their names taken out of the book of life. Clearly, we would not be wise to just focus on the books preserved for us in the library called the Bible. Instead, we would be wise to live by every word of God which proceeds forth out of His mouth (Deuteronomy 8:3). For we read that we will be judged by the words of Christ.
John 12:44-48 – Jesus cried and said, He that believeth on me, believeth not on me, but on him that sent me. And he that seeth me seeth him that sent me. I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth on me should not abide in darkness. And if any man hear my words, and believe not, I judge him not: for I came not to judge the world, but to save the world. He that rejecteth me, and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.
Revelation 20:11-12 – And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works.
II Corinthians 5:9-11 – Wherefore we labour, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him. For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences.
From looking at the list of the scriptures referenced by Bible authors but not included in the book, clearly the canon is incomplete in terms of containing all the inspired words of God. So again we must ask, who gave anyone the authority to restrict God’s word, to close the canon on His word? Where is a record of such authority given to limit the library of records to what we now know as the Bible? To be sure, if such a statement of authority was to be found in scripture, it would have been displayed conspicuously within the Bible. Claiming that a particular collection of books is complete and nothing can be added to it, especially since some records have been isolated from those referencing them, brings violators of such activity into full exposure of the consequences found in the warning found in Revelation 22:18,19.
Who has the greatest exposure here? Is it those who actually canonized the Bible originally or those who claim that the work of canonization was completed previously and that nothing can be added to the canonized volume or that nothing can be taken from it? Who holds the greatest risk? I believe that whoever does not teach that man shall live by every word that proceeds forth out of the mouth of the Lord will be found guilty of wresting His scriptures. In the words of Paul, knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we too would be wise to persuade everyone to receive all of God’s word, not just that portion which some say is all we need.
But Try The Spirits Whether They are of God
To be clear, I believe that God alone has the right and authority to both inspire scripture to be written through the Holy Ghost and to conclude scripture. As such, the questions presented in the prior sections are not meant to challenge the overall validity or veracity of the scriptures, especially the documents included in the Bible. Rather, these questions are meant to seriously challenge those who have assumed a right to close the canon of scriptures.
Only the Lord has that right to conclude the movement of His Spirit among people, and no such statements are found in the Bible. That is, no prophet, as moved by the Holy Ghost, has stated that the Lord has stopped raising up prophets since that first generation of the church established and maintained by Jesus Christ. Nor is it written anywhere in scripture that God turned the decision to close the canon of scripture over to individuals or any certain group of individuals.
We find warnings similar to Revelation 22:18,19 KJV elsewhere in scripture, such as the following:
Note how none of these scriptures, including Revelation 22:18,19 KJV, close the so-called canon of scriptures. Rather, they represent a sobering warning that no one should wrest the scriptures. Otherwise certain destruction awaits them and those who follow on in their presumptuous ways.
We must, therefore, also recognize the presumptuous ways of false prophets who seek not only to take way the word of the Lord, like the prophet Hananiah (Jeremiah 28:1-17), but those who also attempt to add to it by presumptuously speaking for the Lord (e.g. Deuteronomy 18:20-22). Just as there were many false prophets before Jesus Christ atoned for the sins of the world, we have been warned that false prophets will indeed exist unto the latter days.
II Peter 2:1-3 JKV – But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction. And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of. And through covetousness shall they with feigned words make merchandise of you: whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not, and their damnation slumbereth not.
II Peter 2:10 JKV – But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, self-willed, they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities.
Because there are false prophets who do not speak by the Holy Ghost, we have been instructed to try the spirits to determine whether or not they are of God.
I John 4:1-3 KJV – Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world. Hereby know ye the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is of God: And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world.
Therefore, wrongly accepting the words of everyone who claims to be a prophet of God is just as destructive as wrongly concluding that God no longer speaks today. In order that we are not deceived by false prophets and their prophecies, as testified by all God’s true prophets, we must look to Jesus Christ in all things.
John 5:39-42 KJV – Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me [Jesus Christ]. And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life. I receive not honour from men. But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in you.
Luke 24:25-27 KJV – Then he [Jesus Christ] said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken: Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.
Acts 3:18-24 KJV – But those things, which God before had shewed by the mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he hath so fulfilled. Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord. And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you: Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from among the people. Yea, and all the prophets from Samuel and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days.
Every Soul Which Will Not Hear That Prophet, Shall be Destroyed
As shown previously, the scriptures demonstrate that other inspired documents exist outside of the Bible. They also show that whosoever claims that the Bible is the complete canon of the word of God, and that it stands uniquely separate from all documents not included in it, will be judged by the all the words of God, not just those who pick to be their Bible (see John 12:48). Therefore, we would be wise to live by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD (Deuteronomy 8:3). For it is also written:
Acts 3:22,23 – For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you. And it shall come to pass, that every soul, which will not hear that prophet, shall be destroyed from among the people.
Note that Moses did not say that everyone who does not accept the Bible as God’s final word shall be destroyed from among the people. Rather, the warning is for those who do not hear that prophet of whom Moses spoke, who is Jesus Christ.
A related concern is how it is maintained by some that nothing can actually be taken from or added to the Bible because, in their view, it is inerrant. Anyone who makes this claim is simply denying, even contradicting, the very reason for the warnings given in Revelation 22:18,19. Just like Adam and Eve were warned that in the day they ate the fruit of the forbidden tree they would surely die, people throughout the ages have violated the proscriptions found in God’s word, including in either Revelation 22:18 or Revelation 22:19. Simply put, only Jesus Christ is inerrant. He is the only One who has lived on this earth who has not sinned and come short of the glory of God. This is why we must come to Him and Him alone to be saved.
Thus, we are to understand that the warnings given in Revelation 22:18,19 were written both for those who falsely speak for God and for those who refuse to hear God speak today. Warnings such as these were given, in part, because of the fallibilities of people, and everyone who attempts to limit God and His sovereignty over His own Word in any way face certain destruction. Said another way, all people who attempt to put any bounds on God’s Word will find the penalties of these warnings being applied directly to themselves.
Prove All Things, Hold Fast that Which is Good
To help place these words into their proper context, here is a listing of scriptures and notes that demonstrate the sovereignty of God and the probability that He will continue speaking to humanity.
- Hebrews 13:8 – Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.
- He is the Word of God (John 1:1 & John 1:14), so we can expect Him to yet speak (e.g. Revelation 19:14-16).
- Moreover, we can expect Jesus Christ to speak “Today” (e.g. Hebrews 3:7 & Hebrews 3:13 with Hebrews 4:12).
- Jesus says His sheep know His voice and follow Him (John 10:4, John 10:16, John 10:27 with Acts 3:23).
- His words are life and they are spirit (John 6:63), and therefore are not confined to printed words on a page (John 5:38-40).
- We are the epistle of Christ ministered by His servants (II Corinthians 3:2-4), those upon whom He writes His law (Hebrews 8:8-12).
- I Thessalonians 5:19-21 – Quench not the Spirit. Despise not prophesyings. Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.
- We have been called upon to not grieve the Holy Spirit (Ephesians 4:30) by whom we have the scriptures (II Peter 1:19-20).
- Those who vex the Holy Spirit will find that God fights against them (Isaiah 63:9,10).
- Therefore, we are called to humble ourselves by submitting to God and His word (James 4:5-10), and He promises to raise us up in due time (I Peter 5:6-11).
- John 21:25 – And there are also many other things which Jesus did, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be written. Amen.
- Who could refuse any book containing the words and works of Jesus if, in the words of John, it should be written?
- The Book of Mormon is such a book, because it includes the words and the work of Jesus Christ among a remnant of His covenant peoples, the house of Israel (III Nephi 12:1-4).
- Moreover, the Book of Mormon fulfills prophecy:
- Isaiah 29:11-18
- Ezekiel 37:16-23
- By this restored record, Jesus Christ promises to manifest Himself to all peoples (I Nephi 4:16-29 and I Nephi 3:190-201 with Ether 1:34,35).
- For the Book of Mormon is the New Covenant spoken of by the prophets (D&C 83:8 with Hebrews 8:8-13).
Be Wise Now Therefore
Thus we conclude that those who try to exclude the Book of Mormon from consideration based on Revelation 22:18, especially in light of the very next verse, Revelation 22:19, are wresting the scriptures to their own destruction. They would be wise, therefore, to cease doing so and to rather live according to the counsel given in Psalm 2:
- Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?
- The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, and against his anointed, saying,
- Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us.
- He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the LORD shall have them in derision.
- Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure.
- Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.
- I will declare the decree: the LORD hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee.
- Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.
- Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.
- Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth.
- Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trembling.
- Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him.
 Compare I Corinthians 14:29-33, Acts 11:27-30, Acts 13:1-2, Acts 15:32-35, Acts 21:10-14, Revelation 1:3, Revelation 22:9, etc. with John 4:44, Luke 24:25, Acts 10:43, Acts 13:40-41 & Habakkuk 1:5
 Note: The leaves of the tree (of life) spoken of in the Revelation 22:2 are references to the scriptures of the book of life. That is, the leaves are references to all the scriptures of God, the very words by which man is to live as described in Deuteronomy 8:3 and John 6:26-63. Compare with Isaiah 2:3 and Micah 4:2.